%% 9. Gibbs phenomenon
ATAPformats
%%
% Polynomial interpolants and projections oscillate and overshoot near
% discontinuities. We have observed this _Gibbs phenomenon_ already in
% Chapter 2, and now we shall look at it more carefully. We shall see that
% the Gibbs effect for interpolants can be regarded as a consequence of the
% oscillating inverse-linear tails of Lagrange polynomials, i.e.,
% interpolants of Kronecker delta functions. Chapter 15 will show that
% these same tails, combined together in a different manner, are also the
% origin of Lebesgue constants of size $O(\log n)$, with implications
% throughout approximation theory.
%%
% To start, let us consider the function |sign(x)|, which we interpolate in
% $n+1 = 10$ and 20 Chebyshev points. We take $n$ to be odd to avoid having
% a gridpoint at the middle of the step.
%%
% \vskip -2em
x = chebfun('x'); f = sign(x);
subplot(1,2,1), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on, grid on
f9 = chebfun(f,10); plot(f9,'.-'); FS = 'fontsize';
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 9',FS,9)
subplot(1,2,2), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on, grid on
f19 = chebfun(f,20); plot(f19,'.-')
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 19',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% Both of these figures show a substantial overshoot near the jump. As $n$
% increases from $9$ to $19$, the overshoot gets narrower, but not shorter,
% and it will not go away as $n\to\infty$. Let us zoom in and look at the
% plot on subintervals:
%%
% \vskip -2em
subplot(1,2,1), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on, grid on
plot(f9,'.-','interval',[0 0.8]), axis([-.2 .8 .5 1.5])
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 9',FS,9)
subplot(1,2,2), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on, grid on
plot(f19,'.-','interval',[0 0.4]), axis([-.1 .4 .5 1.5])
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 19',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% We now zoom in further with analogous plots for $n=99$ and 999.
%%
% \vskip -2em
subplot(1,2,1), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on
f99 = chebfun(f,100); plot(f99,'.-','interval',[0 0.08])
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 99',FS,9)
grid on, axis([-.02 .08 .5 1.5])
subplot(1,2,2), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','-k'), hold on
f999 = chebfun(f,1000); plot(f999,'.-','interval',[0 0.008])
set(gca,'xtick',-.002:.002:.01)
set(gca,'xticklabel',{'-0.002','0','0.002','0.004','0.006','0.008'})
title('Gibbs overshoot, n = 999',FS,9)
grid on, axis([-.002 .008 .5 1.5])
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% Notice that in these figures, the vertical scale is always fixed while
% the horizontal scale is adjusted proportionally, confirming that the
% Gibbs overshoot gets narrower but approaches a constant height in the
% limit $n\to\infty$.
%%
% What is this height? We can measure it numerically with the |max|
% command:
%%
% \vskip -2em
disp(' n Gibbs amplitude')
for n = 2.^(1:8)-1
gibbs = max(chebfun(f,n+1));
fprintf('%7d %17.8f\n', n, gibbs)
end
%%
% Clearly as $n\to\infty$, the maximum of the Chebyshev interpolant to the
% sign function converges to a number bigger than 1. The total variation of
% the interpolant, meanwhile, diverges slowly to $\infty$, at a rate
% proportional to $\log n$, and this is the effect we shall examine further
% in Chapter 15.
%%
% \vskip -2em
disp(' n variation')
for n = 2.^(1:8)-1
tv = norm(diff(chebfun(f,n+1)),1);
fprintf('%7d %14.2f\n', n, tv)
end
%%
% The following theorem summarizes the Gibbs phenomenon for Chebyshev
% interpolants. Well, perhaps it is a little bold to call it a
% ``theorem'', since it is not clear that a proof has ever been written
% down. The formulas necessary to represent the interpolant (in the
% equivalent trigonometric case---see Exercise 9.4) can be found in various
% forms in [Runck 1962] and [Helmberg & Wagner 1997], which relates the
% interpolating polynomial to the beta function and reports the numbers
% $1.282$ and $1.066$ to three digits of accuracy. The more precise results
% presented here have been privately communicated to me by Wagner based on
% calculations to more than 500 digits.
%%
% \em
% {\bf Theorem 9.1. Gibbs phenomenon for Chebyshev interpolants.}
% Let $p_n$ be the degree $n$ Chebyshev
% interpolant of the function $f(x) = \hbox{\rm sign}(x)$ on $[-1,1]$.
% Then as $n\to\infty$,
% $$ \lim_{n\to\infty,\, n\,\hbox{\footnotesize odd}} \|\kern 1pt p_n\|
% \,=\, c_1 \,=\, 1.28228345577542854813\dots, \eqno (9.1) $$
% $$ \lim_{n\to\infty,\, n\,\hbox{\footnotesize even}} \|\kern 1pt p_n\|
% \,=\, c_2 \,=\, 1.06578388826644809905\dots. \eqno (9.2) $$
% (The case of $\kern 2pt n$ even differs in having a gridpoint at the middle
% of the jump.)
%
%%
%
% Although we are not going to prove Theorem 9.1, we do want to indicate
% where the fixed-overshoot effect comes from. Everything falls into place
% when we consider the Lagrange polynomials introduced in Chapter 5.
% Recall from (5.2) that the $j$th Lagrange polynomial $\ell_j(x)$ for the
% $(n+1)$-point Chebyshev grid is the unique polynomial in ${\cal P}_n$
% that takes the values $1$ at $x_j$ and $0$ at the other grid points
% $x_k$. On the $20$-point grid, $\hbox{i.e.\ } n=19$, here are the
% Lagrange polynomials $\ell_{10}$ and $\ell_{11}$ with a dashed line
% marked at $x=-0.15$, which we will take as our point of special interest.
%
%%
% \vskip -2em
clf, yl = [-0.3 1.3];
xc = -0.15*[1 1];
p10 = chebfun([zeros(1,10) 1 zeros(1,9)]');
p11 = chebfun([zeros(1,11) 1 zeros(1,8)]');
subplot(1,2,1), plot(p10,'.-')
hold on, plot(xc,yl,'--r'), ylim(yl)
title('Lagrange polynomial l_{10}',FS,9)
subplot(1,2,2), plot(p11,'.-')
hold on, plot(xc,yl,'--r'), ylim(yl)
title('Lagrange polynomial l_{11}',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% Here are $\ell_{12}$ and $\ell_{13}$:
%%
% \vskip -2em
p12 = chebfun([zeros(1,12) 1 zeros(1,7)]');
p13 = chebfun([zeros(1,13) 1 zeros(1,6)]');
subplot(1,2,1), hold off, plot(p12,'.-')
hold on, plot(xc,yl,'--r'), ylim(yl)
title('Lagrange polynomial l_{12}',FS,9)
subplot(1,2,2), hold off, plot(p13,'.-')
hold on, plot(xc,yl,'--r'), ylim(yl)
title('Lagrange polynomial l_{13}',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% Following (5.1), we note that by taking the sum of a sequence of such
% Lagrange functions, we get the interpolant to the function that jumps
% from 0 for $x<0$ to $1$ for $x>0$. Here is the sum of the four just
% plotted, which is beginning to look like a square wave:
%%
% \vskip -2em
clf, plot(p10+p11+p12+p13,'.-')
hold on, plot(xc,yl,'--r'), ylim(yl)
title('l_{10} + l_{11} + l_{12} + l_{13}',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% If we went all the way to the last grid point we would get the
% interpolant
% $$ p(x) = \sum_{j = (n+1)/2}^n \ell_j(x). $$
% Note that for any fixed $x
% Our discussion so far has concerned interpolants, but there is a parallel
% theory of the Gibbs phenomenon for projections---in the notation of this
% book, polynomials $f_n$ rather than $p_n$. (The required Chebyshev
% coefficients are defined by the same integral (3.12) of Theorem 3.1, even
% though we are now dealing with functions $f$ that are not Lipschitz
% continuous as in the assumption stated for that theorem.) As always,
% though the interpolants are closer to practical computation, the
% projections may appear to be more fundamental mathematically.
% Historically speaking, it was the case of Fourier (trigonometric)
% projection that was analyzed first. The original discoverer was not Gibbs
% but Henry Wilbraham, a 22-year-old fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge,
% in 1848, who unfortunately made the mistake of publishing his fine paper
% in the short-lived {\em Cambridge and Dublin Journal of Mathematics}
% [Wilbraham 1848]. Fourier series for certain functions with jumps were
% already long known in Wilbraham's day---in fact they go back to Euler,
% half a century before Fourier. The particular series studied by
% Wilbraham, originally due to Euler in 1772, is
% $$ \cos(t) - {1\over 3} \cos (3t) + {1\over 5} \cos(5t) - \cdots,
% \eqno (9.3) $$
% which approximates a square wave of height $\pm \pi/4$ (compare
% Exercise 3.6(a)):
%
%%
% \vskip -2em
t = chebfun('t',[-6,6]);
f = (pi/4)*sign(cos(t));
clf, plot(f,'k','jumpline','k')
f9 = cos(t) - cos(3*t)/3 + cos(5*t)/5 - cos(7*t)/7 + cos(9*t)/9;
hold on, plot(f9), xlim([-6 6])
title('Partial sum of a Fourier series',FS,9)
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% Wilbraham worked out the magnitude of the overshoot, and thus the
% following analogue of Theorem 9.1 is due to him.
%%
% \em
% {\bf Theorem 9.2. Gibbs phenomenon for Chebyshev projections.}
% Let $f_n$ be the degree $n$ Chebyshev projection of the sign function
% $f(x) = \hbox{\rm sign}(x)$ on $[-1,1]$. Then as $n\to\infty$,
% $$ \lim_{n\to\infty} \|f_n\| \,=\,
% {2\over \pi} \int_0^\pi {\sin x\over x}\, dx \,=\,
% 1.178979744472167\dots . \eqno (9.4) $$
% \vspace{-1.5em}
%%
% (The function $\hbox{Si}(x) = \int_0^x t^{-1}\sin t \kern 1pt dt$ is
% known as the _sine integral_; see Exercise 9.6.) To see this number
% experimentally we can use the |'trunc'| option in the Chebfun
% constructor. The overshoots look similar to what we saw before, but with
% smaller amplitude.
%%
% \vskip -2em
f = sign(x);
warnState = warning('off', 'CHEBFUN:constructor')
subplot(1,2,1), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','k'), hold on, grid on
f9 = chebfun(f,'trunc',10); plot(f9,'-')
title('Gibbs projection overshoot, n = 9',FS,9)
subplot(1,2,2), hold off, plot(f,'k','jumpline','k'), hold on, grid on
f19 = chebfun(f,'trunc',20); plot(f19,'-')
title('Gibbs projection overshoot, n = 19',FS,9);
%%
% \vskip 1pt
%%
% The numbers behave as predicted:
%%
% \vskip -2em
disp(' n Gibbs amplitude')
for np = 2.^(4:7)
g = chebfun(f,'trunc',np);
fprintf('%7d %17.8f\n', np, max(g{0,5/np}))
end
limit = (2/pi)*sum(chebfun('sin(x)./x',[0 pi]))
warning(warnState)
%%
% In all the experiments of this chapter we have worked with polynomials
% rather than trigonometric series, but the effects are the same (Exercise
% 9.4).
%%
% It is worth commenting on a particular property of series such as (9.3)
% that we have taken for granted throughout this discussion: even though
% each partial sum is continuous, a series may converge pointwise to a
% discontinuous limit, everywhere except at the points of discontinuity
% themselves. This kind of behavior seems familiar enough nowadays, but in
% the century beginning with Fourier's work in 1807, it often seemed
% paradoxical and confusing to mathematicians. The same pointwise
% convergence to discontinuous functions can also occur with interpolants,
% as in Theorem 9.1.
%%
% In this chapter we have focussed on the height of the overshoot of a
% Gibbs oscillation, because this is the effect so readily seen in plots.
% Perhaps the most important property of Gibbs oscillations for practical
% applications, however, is not their height but their slow decay as one
% moves away from the point of discontinuity. If $f$ has a jump, the
% oscillations at a distance $k$ gridpoints away must be expected to be of
% size $O(k^{-1})$; if $f'$ has a jump we expect oscillations of size
% $O(k^{-2})$, and so on. (Exercise 26.5 will look at the analogous
% exponents for interpolation by rational functions rather
% than polynomials.) This algebraic rate of decay of information in
% polynomial interpolants can be contrasted with the exponential decay that
% one gets with spline approximations, which is the key advantage of
% splines for certain applications. Chebfun responds to this problem by
% representing functions with discontinuities by piecewise polynomials
% rather than global ones, with breakpoints at the discontinuities. For
% example, the location of the discontinuity in the function
% $\exp(|x-0.1|)$ will be determined automatically in response to the
% command
%%
% \vskip -2em
f = chebfun(@(x) exp(abs(x-0.1)),'splitting','on');
%%
% The result is a chebfun consisting of two pieces each of
% degree 3, and the break in the middle appears at the right
% place:
%%
% \vskip -2em
f.ends(2)
%%
% Let us return to 22-year-old $\hbox{Mr.}$ Wilbraham. Unfortunately, his
% published paper had little impact, and the effect was rediscovered and
% discussed in the pages of _Nature_ during 1898--1899 by James Michelson,
% A. E. H. Love, and J. Willard Gibbs. These authors got more attention for
% a number of reasons. First, they were leading scientists. Second, their
% problem arose at a time when applied mathematics had advanced much
% further and in a practical application (a mechanical graphing machine
% called a ``harmonic analyser'' used by Michelson and Stratton). Third,
% they published their observations in a major journal. Fourth, they
% failed to get it right at first, so several publications appeared in
% succession! Other mathematicians got involved too, notably
% $\hbox{Poincar\'e}$. Finally, they were lucky enough to have ``Gibbs's
% phenomenon'' named and highlighted a few years later in a major research
% article on Fourier analysis by the mathematician Maxime $\hbox{B\^ocher}$
% [1906]. For a fascinating discussion of the history of the Gibbs
% phenomenon (for projection, not interpolation), which they more properly
% call the _Gibbs--Wilbraham phenomenon_, see [Hewitt & Hewitt 1979].
%%
%
% \begin{displaymath}
% \framebox[4.7in][c]{\parbox{4.5in}{\vspace{2pt}\sl
% {\sc Summary of Chapter 9.}
% Chebyshev projections and interpolants, as well as other polynomial and
% trigonometric approximations, tend to oscillate near discontinuities.
% The oscillations decay algebraically, not exponentially, with distance
% from the discontinuity.
% \vspace{2pt}}}
% \end{displaymath}
%
%%
% \small\smallskip\parskip=2pt
% {\bf Exercise 9.1. \boldmath Calculations for larger $n$.}
% We measured the height of the Gibbs overshoot for a step function for $n
% = 1,3,7,\dots, 255$. Larger values of $n$ get a bit slow, but knowing
% that the maximum occurs around $x = 3/n$, compute these numbers up to
% $n=4095$ using a command of the form \verb|max(g{0,5/n})|. How great a
% speedup does this trick produce?
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.2. A function with many jumps.} Use Chebfun to produce
% a plot of the degree 200 Chebyshev interpolant to the
% function \verb|round(exp(sin(2*pi*x)))| on $[-1,1]$.
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.3. Lagrange polynomials.} Take $n\ge 2$ to be even and
% let $p$ be the degree $n$ Chebyshev interpolant to the Kronecker delta
% function at $x = x_{n/2} = 0$. (a) Use the barycentric formula of
% Theorem 5.2 to obtain a simple formula for $p$. (b) Derive a formula for
% the values of $p$ at the ``Chebyshev midpoints'' defined by the usual
% formula $x_j = \cos(\kern .7pt j\pi/n)$ of Chapter 2 except with
% half-integer values of $j$. (c) For $n=100$, use Chebfun to produce an
% elegant plot showing the inverse-linear amplitudes of these values. (You
% can get the Chebyshev midpoints from \verb|chebpts(n,1)| or from
% \verb|x=chebpts(2*n+1)|, \verb|x=x(2:2:end)|.)
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.4. Fourier and Chebyshev Gibbs phenomena.} We have
% repeatedly made the connection between Chebyshev polynomials $T_n(x)$ on
% the unit interval, Laurent polynomials $(z^n+z^{-n})/2$ on the unit
% circle, and trigonometric polynomials $\cos(n\theta)$ on $[-\pi,\pi]$.
% Use these connections to show that the Gibbs overshoot in Chebyshev
% interpolation of $\hbox{sign}(x)$ on $[-1,1]$, with $n$ even, is
% identical to the overshoot for a certain problem of trigonometric
% interpolation in $\theta$.
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.5. Local minima of a truncated sine series.}
% (a) Plot $\phi_n$ with $n = 10,100,$ and $1000$ for a sum going back
% to Euler in 1755,
% $$ \phi_n(x) = \sum_{k=1}^n {\sin(kx)\over k}. $$
% What function does the sum evidently converge to?
% Is the Gibbs overshoot of the same relative magnitude as for
% (9.3)?
% (b) For each case, determine the first four local minimum values of
% $\phi_n(x)$ in $(0,\pi)$. (c) Write an elegant Chebfun program that
% determines the smallest value of $n$ for
% which these minima are not monotonically decreasing.
% (This effect was investigated by Gronwall [1912].)
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.6. Sine integral.}
% (a) Construct and plot a chebfun for the sine integral
% $\hbox{Si}(x) = \int_0^x t^{-1} \sin t$ for $x\in[0,10]$.
% What is its length? (b) Same for $x\in[0,100]$.
% (c) Same for $x\in[0,1000]$.
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.7. An unresolvable function.}
% The command \verb|f = chebfun(| \verb|'sin(1./x)',100000)| produces a
% polynomial interpolant to $\sin(1/x)$ through 100,000 Chebyshev points.
% The plot produced by \verb|plot(f)| looks as if there is a bug in the
% computation somewhere. Produce similar plots for 10000, 1000, and
% smaller even numbers of points and explain why in fact, there is no bug.
% \par
% {\bf Exercise 9.8. Decay away from discontinuity.} Plot the function
% $f(x) = \cos(7x)\sin(3x) + \hbox{sign}(\sin(x/2))e^x$ on $[-1,1]$ as well
% as its interpolating polynomial $p_n(x)$ in $n+1=100$ Chebyshev points.
% Confirm the algebraic rate of decay away from the discontinuity by
% plotting $|f(x)-p_n(x)|$ together with the function $c/|x|$ for a
% suitable value of $c$.
% \par
%