%% Brownian paths and random polynomials
% Nick Trefethen, June 2019
%%
% (Chebfun example stats/BrownianPolynomials.m)
% [Tags: #randnfun, Brownian motion]
%%
% The Chebfun |randnfun(d)| command produces a smooth random function
% with minimal wavelength $d$,
% as described in [1], which converges (or rather fails to converge!)
% to white noise as $d\to 0$. Its integral is
% a smooth random walk, which converges (properly this time) to Brownian motion
% as $d\to 0$. Here is an example:
rng(1)
r = randnfun(0.01,[0,1]);
LW = 'linewidth';
subplot(2,1,1), plot(r,'k',LW,.6)
grid on, title('smooth random function')
b = cumsum(r);
subplot(2,1,2), plot(b), grid on, title('smooth random walk')
%%
% All this is done via trigonometric polynomials with random
% coefficients. (The idea of Fourier series with random
% coefficients goes back to Norbert Wiener and is treated in a
% marvelous book by Kahane [4].)
% A priori, a smooth random function is periodic and given by a
% distribution that is translation-invariant.
% In practice we usually want a nonperiodic function, and Chebfun achieves
% this (with small though in principle nonzero error) by
% truncation from a longer periodic interval to a shorter nonperiodic
% one.
%%
% One might ask, what are the analogues of these constructions
% for algebraic as opposed to trigonometric polynomials?
% An answer to this question has recently been provided in
% a pair of papers by Foster, et al. [2] and Habermann [3].
% We define a _random polynomial of degree $n$_ by
% $$ r(x) = \sum_{k=0}^n c_k \sqrt{2k+1} P_k(x), $$
% where $P_k$ is the degree $k$ Legendre polynomial (shifted to
% $[0,1]$) and the $c_k$ are i.i.d. standard normal random variables.
% As $n\to\infty$, $r$ does not look like _white_ noise, for
% it has higher frequencies and higher amplitudes near
% the endpoints than in the middle (examples will be shown in a moment).
% However, its integral converges to Brownian motion.
% Using the convenient identity
% $$ \int_0^t P_k(s) ds = {P_{k+1}(t) - P_{k-1}(t)\over
% 4k+2} \quad (k\ge 1), $$
% we conclude that _polynomial random walk of degree $n$_ can be defined by
% $$ w(t) = c_0 t + \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} c_k {P_{k+1}(t) - P_{k-1}(t) \over
% \sqrt{8k+4}}. $$
% Foster, et al. note that the polynomials in this sum can be
% interpreted as Jacobi polynomials,
% except with the nonstandard exponents $-1$, and
% thus constrained to take the value 0 at both endpoints.
% Here for example is the degree $50$ "Foster-Habermann polynomial":
scaled_legendre = @(n) legpoly(n,[0 1])*diag(sqrt(2*n+1));
foster = @(n) (legpoly(n,[0 1])-legpoly(n-2,[0 1]))*diag(1./sqrt(8*n-4));
clf, plot(foster(50)), grid on
title('Foster-Habermann polynomial, degree 50')
%%
% The same anonymous functions work for multiple columns.
% Here, for example, are the Foster-Habermann
% polynomials of degrees 2 through 6:
plot(foster(2:6)), grid on, ylim([-.5 .5])
title('Foster-Habermann polynomials, degrees 2-6')
%%
% Random polynomials can now be obtained by taking
% random linear combinations of the scaled Legendre polynomials,
% and polynomial random walks can be obtained from
% random linear combinations of the Foster-Habermann polynomials.
% Here are suitable anonymous functions (we could also have
% defined |ranwalk| via |cumsum|):
ranpoly = @(n) scaled_legendre(0:n)*randn(n+1,1);
t = chebfun('t',[0,1]);
ranwalk = @(n) t*randn + foster(2:n)*randn(n-1,1);
%%
% Here, for example, are random polynomials
% of degrees 20, 100, and 500 with their corresponding
% random walks of degrees 21, 101, and 501:
for n = 20*5.^(0:2)
rng(3)
subplot(2,1,1), plot(ranpoly(n),'k',LW,.6), ylim([-100 100])
grid on, title(['random polynomial of degree ' int2str(n)])
rng(3)
subplot(2,1,2), plot(ranwalk(n+1)), ylim([-.75 .75])
grid on, title('polynomial random walk')
snapnow
end
%%
% Note that, as usual for polynomials, these shapes are in no sense
% translation-invariant, having faster oscillations near the endpoints
% than in the middle. Still, it is proved in [2] and [3] that the
% polynomial random walks approach
% Brownian motion as $n\to \infty$. Many other interesting properties
% are also developed in [2] and [3], concerning polynomial moments, for example,
% as well as applications to the numerical solution of stochastic
% differential equations.
%%
% How do polynomial random walks of a finite degree $n$ differ
% from true Brownian motion?
% The essence of the polynomial construction we have described
% is that the contributions of different degrees are independent
% (ultimately since the Legendre polynomials are orthogonal; the
% argument in [3] for this makes use of the result known as
% Itô's isometry).
% It has been shown in [3] that the variance of the difference
% converges to zero at the rate $O(1/n)$
% and approaches a semicircle in profile. An explicit formula
% involves $t-t^2$ minus the sum of the squares of the Foster-Habermann
% polynomials. Thus for example, here is the variance of the
% error process for degree $n=20$:
s = chebfun('t-t^2',[0,1]);
for k = 2:20
s = s - foster(k).^2;
end
clf, plot(s), grid on
title('Nearly-semicircular variance profile')
%%
% Beautiful!
%% References
% [1] S. Filip, A. Javeed, and L. N. Trefethen,
% Smooth random functions, random ODEs, and Gaussian processes,
% _SIAM Review_ 61 (2019), 185--205.
%
% [2] J. Foster, T. Lyons, and H. Oberhauser,
% An optimal polynomial approximation of Brownian motion,
% _SIAM J. Numer. Anal._ 58 (2020), 1393-1421.
%
% [3] K. Habermann, A semicircle law and decorrelation
% phenomena for iterated Kolmogorov loops,
% _J. LMS_ 103 (2021), 558-586.
%
% [4] J.-P. Kahane, _Some Random Series of Functions_,
% 2nd ed., Cambridge, 1985.